Artillery refers to large weapons designed to large projectiles over a long range and the force that employs these weapons. Its primary role in warfare is to support other ground forces by delivering high explosives to enemy positions.
The Starfleet Ground Forces operated artillery units. These were specialized units equipped with artillery weapons and trained to deploy them in the battlefield and use them to support other forces. (LUG RPG: The Dominion War Sourcebook: The Fires of Armageddon)
During the Iconian Herald invasion of Bajor, the Bajoran Militia used surface-to-orbit artillery to keep Herald warships at bay, and also concealed artillery emplacements in caves to engage Herald ground forces. (Beat the Drums of War)