Star Trek Expanded Universe

A Doctor of Science (also called a Doctor of Philosophy) was often a recipient of a doctorate. Becoming a Doctor of Science/Philosophy required one to write a research thesis on most occasions, but some fields may have had different requirements, depending on the university.

Access to a doctoral program sometimes (but not always, as many Federation universities, like Archer University, Harvard University, New York University, Rutgers University, Tufts University, University of Kansas and University of Mississippi, accepted doctoral students with only a bachelor's degree) required a Master's degree beforehand. The degree associated was known as a doctorate and often called a Ph.D. (for Philosophiae Doctor)

Becoming a professor often required one to earn a PhD first, although Lyran medical schools often used MDs as faculty.

Tanneke van Ruijven started the Triple-E Senates as part of her thesis requirements for her Ph.D. in music. (RIS Bouteina: "Fundraiser")

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