Extrasensory perception (commonly abbreviated ESP) is a term generally used in relation to abilities displayed by humans that are beyond the five basic senses. There is a relationship between ESP and telepathy, but the two are not synonymous.
In the 24th century, extrasensory perception was one ability for which children at Enclave J-12 were tested. Those showing high esper ratings were then trained to augment their abilities. (Star Trek: Pendragon: "Father to the Man")