The Palais de la Concorde was located in Paris, France and served as the Federation's seat of government. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country, TNG novel: Articles of the Federation, Star Trek: Pendragon)
In the 24th century, the paramilitary organization/terrorist group known as the Maquis named themselves after the French Resistance group of World War II. (TNG: "The Wounded", "Chain of Command, Part 1", DS9: "Blaze of Glory", VOY: "Hunters")
The Celts were present in France in ancient times.
During World War II, the German Nazi forces invaded and controlled France for much of the war. The Allies invaded France later in the war, with the United States armed forces playing a role in liberating France. (VOY: "The Killing Game", "The Killing Game, Part II")
France was represented in the 0L Pledge for European Law School Transparency by Marianne Kwyjibo, who ultimately attended Yale University for law school. (Star Trek: False Vacuum: "Pledge of the Protester")