The first known encounter between the Gorn Hegemony and the United Federation of Planets took place in 2267, when the Gorn attacked a Federation settlement on Cestus III, a world the Gorn claimed as their territory. The USS Enterprise responded to a distress call from the settlement, leading to a showdown between a Gorn captain and James T. Kirk. Although that first contact was hostile, intervention by the mysterious Metrons led to a somewhat peaceful resolution (TOS: "Arena"), allowing the two governments to develop a moderately cordial relationship. As a result, Gorn exchange officers were serving on Starfleet vessels as early as the 2270s (TOS novel: Dreadnought!), and as late as the 2380s (Korsha, Star Trek: Prometheus. Ssliss, Star Trek: Arcadia). Some even attended and graduated from Starfleet Academy.
In the 2280s a Gorn king ruled the Hegemony, but deferred operation of the government to his children and advisors. Although his regime suffered political problems, the Hegemony still proved to be a formidable military force in the region. (TOS PC game: Star Trek: Klingon Academy)
In 2375, while the Federation starship USS Enterprise-E visited the Gorn homeworld in an attempt to enlist Gorn aid during the Dominion War, the "Black Crest" faction launched a Coup d'état, taking over the Hegemony and laying claim once again to Cestus III. (TNG comic: "The Gorn Crisis") After the crisis was resolved, the Hegemony joined the alliance of Alpha Quadrant powers against the Dominion. (Star Trek novel: Articles of the Federation)
- In Star Trek: Pendragon continuity, a thirteen-month conflict broke out between the Gorn and the Federation in September 2375, ending with the Hegemony's surrender.
By 2379, the Gorn Hegemony had established affable political relations with the Federation, and maintained an embassy on Earth. Federation President Min Zife found Zogozin, the Gorn ambassador, to be very intimidating. (TNG novel: A Time to Heal)
The Gorn Hegemony was ruled by an Imperator who acted as both the head of state and the head of government. However, by the 23rd century onwards, the Gorn Imperator delegated his authority to several vassals who became at odds with one another for supremacy of the Hegemony. The Imperator himself was sheltered from these political problems by those loyal to him. This led to degradation within the Gorn government. (TOS video game: Klingon Academy)
Despite the political problems that plagued the Hegemony, the Gorn Space Command was the primary defense organization that managed the Hegemony's military. Even though the Gorn possess fewer ships compared to their neighbors, the Space Command maintains a fleet that is highly feared by its enemies. Gorn officers are highly trained with a great deal of combat experience. This combination makes the Gorn a fearsome foe to face in battle. (TOS video game: Starfleet Command)
The Gorn capital world was named Ghdar (aka Ghdar I). Two major systems of the Hegemony were Geydar (aka Ghdar II) and Gihdar (aka Ghdar III).