Jupiter (Sol V) is the fifth and largest planet in the Sol system. It is a Class J gas giant, renowned for the cloud feature on its surface, the Great Red Spot.
Jupiter had over sixty natural satellites, ranging in size, and retains the most moons in orbit of any planet in the Sol system. Amongst the most notable are Ganymede, Europa, Io and Amalthea. (Star Trek: The Motion Picture; TOS: "By Any Other Name"; Star Trek Star Charts)
Sometime in the distant past, an unknown civilization planted one of the obelisks in the Alien Obelisk Sol-Sirius Network on Jupiter. (Dragon Ball Z vs. Star Trek: The Beginning of Infinity; Dimensional Prophecy of Zohar)
In the mid-22nd century, Earth constructed a station in orbit of Jupiter called Jupiter Station, responsible for repairing Earth Starfleet starships. (ENT: "Silent Enemy", et al)
By the late 23rd century, the total population of all of the colonies of Jupiter's moons was 125 million. (Star Fleet Universe: Gazetteer Based on F&E Map, 14 August 2012 revision)
In 2353, the Federation Starfleet constructed another Jupiter Station in orbit.
Sometime between 2369 and 2373, Cadets Arkin Jora and Vaerth Parihn rescued the crew and passengers from a transport ship stuck in Jupiter's gravity well. (Star Trek: The Adventures of Argus)
In the 2370s, the Starfleet Corps of Engineers developed the Jupiter Shipyards around the planet for construction of new starships. (Star Trek: Pioneer: "For Better or Worse": Star Trek: Far Horizons: "Jump")
There was hydrocarbon-based life in the Jovian atmosphere. (Star Trek Star Charts)