Star Trek Expanded Universe

The Starfleet Medical Academy was a United Federation of Planets Starfleet graduate-level medical school which was associated with both Starfleet Medical and Starfleet Academy. Students who wished to become doctors, nurses, medical technicians, corpsmen, or work in other healthcare billets in Starfleet, would normally be trained at the Medical Academy. (DS9: "Emissary")

In the Star Fleet Technical Manual, this school was called the Starfleet Academy College of Medicine, sometimes known as SACOM.

Those officers who already had M.D.'s and D.O.'s from other institutions undertook officer training and integration, which took two years, at the Academy. (Absolute Horizon)

Graduates of either the medical officer integration program (TOS novel: Planet of Judgment), or of Starfleet Medical Academy's curriculum for physicians and surgeons, received the degree of at least lieutenant junior grade ("Emissary") or full lieutenant upon completion. (Absolute Horizon)

Cf. Christine Chapel, who had a Ph.D. in bio-research before undergoing nursing training, had the rank of ensign when first assigned to the USS Enterprise in 2266. (TOS: "What Are Little Girls Made Of?")

A facility in San Francisco associated with the Medical Academy was the Starfleet Teaching Hospital. (TOS novel: Enterprise: The First Adventure)

30 such facilities existed throughout the Federation and were referred to as "Sector General" medical centers. (Orion Press: "Aftermath", Drink Deeply; Hospital Ship Marie Curie)

Internships and residencies by Medical Academy graduates may be taken on Starfleet ships, stations or planet-based facilities. In one continuity, Leonard McCoy's internship was as part of an inoculation program on Dramia II in the early 2250s. (TAS: "Albatross" adaptation in TAS novel: Star Trek Log Six) In the 2290s, Laurena Cytrynbaum's residency in psychiatry was aboard USS Avenger in the billet of doctor (mental health), reporting to Dr. S.L. Richardson. (Star Trek: Avenger: "Belonging")

Towards the end of the Enterprise's first five-year mission under James T. Kirk, Leonard McCoy's proposal to revamp the curriculum at Starfleet Medical Academy was met with resistance, due to his personal history with John Leland, the admiral in charge of Starfleet Medical's budget. Leland finally relented to implementing the new curriculum (which would improve education on the treatment of non-humans) -- but only if McCoy removed his name from the curriculum proposal. (Absolute Horizon)

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