United Earth, also known as the United Earth Republic, is the world government that formed on Earth during the 22nd century, some fifty years after the Vulcan First Contact in 2063. United Earth continued to exist as political subdivision of the United Federation of Planets, of which which it helped found in 2161. (Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Enterprise)
The last of Earth's nations became a part of United Earth in 2150. Australia was one of the last holdouts. Even so, many of Earth's countries confederations retained their individual identities and local sovereignty. The European Alliance, African Confederation, United States of America and others continued to exist into the 24th century and beyond. (TNG: "The Price", "Conundrum", "Attached"; VOY: "Imperfection")
- This implies, but does not prove, that the United Earth is a parliamentary state, led by a Prime Minister. In the TNG short story "Eleven Hours Out" and other publications, it is shown that Earth has both a President and Prime Minister. Michael Jan Friedman's serial novel Starfleet: Year One had Lydia Littlejohn as Earth's president during the Earth-Romulan War.
London was the capital of the United Earth Government.
- There is no city mentioned as being the capital of the United Earth Government in canon. Speculation and some fan fiction have assumed a variety of cities were the capital, including Geneva (as in the fan film series The Romulan War), Paris, San Francisco and New York City.
Background and speculation
The exact structure of the United Earth Government is unknown. Nathan Samuels, an Earth diplomat who appeared in two episodes of Star Trek: Enterprise, was referred to as a minister, suggesting that Earth may have a parliamentary system of government. It's also been speculated that the leader of Earth would be a prime minister, perhaps Samuels himself, though nothing has been confirmed.
- These speculations are affirmed in the ENT novel: The Romulan War: To Brave the Storm, where Samuels serves as Prime Minister; the United Earth Parliament must vote on committing to war against the Romulans; and a President -- Lydia Littlejohn -- of the United Earth Republic appears.
Presumably, the United Earth Government at the time of Star Trek: Enterprise, which was responsible for the Earth Starfleet, remained in place following the founding of the United Federation of Planets. The 23rd century existence of a United Earth Space Probe Agency in TOS Season 1 indicates this name persists, perhaps referring to the world government even after it joins the UFP.